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 136 matches found of 3,764,770 patents searched  Displaying results 1 - 136 of 136
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Abstract
Get PDF - 5pp US6649067  Flotation method
A flotation method in which the gas bubbles for inducing flotation of the solids in the liquid are produced by a chemical reaction, for example a decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water, induced by catalytic action. The catalyst is on the walls of the flotation reaction and the substance to be flotated is introduced tangentially and caused to flow downwardly and thus upwardly in the reactor.
 2003-11-18 
Get PDF - 9pp US6635182  Floatation process for removal of heavy metal waste and associated apparatus
The present invention is a floatation process and associated apparatus for removing heavy metal waste from various effluent water streams. The process and apparatus generally introduces a population of fine diameter air bubbles and one or more flocculating chemicals into an effluent stream to produce buoyant floc structures that include the heavy metals and that can be removed from the effluent stream. The present invention provides a reliable, cost-effective means of removing heavy metals from effluent water streams.
 2003-10-21 
Get PDF - 12pp US20030146134A1  Methodsof increasing flotation rate

    Methods of increasing the rate of separating hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles by flotation have been developed. They are based on using appropriate reagents to enhance the hydrophobicity of the particles to be floated, so that they can be more readily collected by the air bubbles used in flotation. The hydrophobicity-enhancing reagents include low HLB surfactants, naturally occurring lipids, modified lipids, and hydrophobic polymers. These methods can greatly increase the rate of flotation for the particles that are usually difficult to float, such as ultrafine particles, coarse particles, middlings, and the particles that do not readily float in the water containing large amounts of ions derived from the particles. In addition, new collectos for the flotation of phosphate minerals are disclosed.
 2003-08-07 
Get PDF - 5pp US20030019814A1  Flotation method

A flotation method in which the gas bubbles for inducing flotation of the solids in the liquid are produced by a chemical reaction, for example a decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water, induced by catalytic action. The catalyst is on the walls of the flotation reaction and the substance to be flotated is introduced tangentially and caused to flow downwardly and thus upwardly in the reactor.
 2003-01-30 
Get PDF - 8pp US6344147  Flotation plant
A flotation plant comprises air supply means with which air bubbles can be supplied to a basin to which untreated water is supplied so as to cause flakes suspended in the untreated water to float by aid of the air bubbles; the air supply means includes strip- or plate-shaped aeration means having perforated membranes and to be installed in the bottom region of said basin.
 2002-02-05 
Get PDF - 13pp US6337023  Flotation apparatus for clarifying produced water
A dissolved gas flotation apparatus and process for removing oils and other contaminants from produced water generated in the production of crude petroleum and natural gas. The invention is particularly designed for offshore applications, where space is limited and natural gas is readily available. The invention includes a vessel for receiving and maintaining a liquid level therein and a circulating pump for introducing tiny flotation gas bubbles into the vessel. Natural gas is used as a blanket gas for the vessel and as a source of gas fed into the pump, wherein the gas is mixed with the pumped liquid. The liquid/gas mixture is transferred into the vessel, wherein the gas releases from the liquid, thereby forming tiny, finely dispersed gas bubbles. The tiny gas bubbles rise vertically through the vessel and attach themselves to the oil and other contaminants suspended in the liquid and buoyantly transport the oil and other contaminants to the top of the vessel, where the gas is released and either recycled back to the recirculating pump or transferred out of the vessel for further processing, and the oil and other contaminants are collected in a reservoir for recovery. The clarified water is removed from the vessel through a liquid outlet line located near the bottom of the vessel.
 2002-01-08 
Get PDF - 22pp US6238569  Flotation pile oil/water separator apparatus
A wastewater treatment apparatus for use in an offshore marine environment includes a vertically elongated vessel having upper and lower end portions, wherein at least half of the vessel is submerged during use. The vessel provides an interior for containing fluid during use and is attachable to an offshore marine structure such as a fixed platform or floating marine rig. An influent flow line adds produce wastewater to the interior of the vessel. An effluent is provided for discharging treated fluid from the vessel interior. The upper end portion of the vessel interior defines a free oil separation section, the lower end portion of the vessel interior defines a disposal caisson section. The middle section of the vessel interior defines an induced gas flotation section. A plurality of spargers are provided at the gas flotation section for emitting bubbles at multiple elevational positions within the middle section of the vessel interior. A plurality of inclined baffles are positioned at respective multiple elevational positions within middle section of the vessel interior, a baffle section being positioned next to each of the spargers. Vertical pipe associated with each baffle enables oil that accumulates below a baffle to flow upwardly in the vessel. An oil removal flow line is provided for removing oil from the upper section of the vessel interior after it has accumulated at the upper end portion of the vessel interior. The vessel lower section communicates with the discharge for discharging treated water from the vessel interior after it has been treated.
 2001-05-29 
Get PDF - 20pp US6174434  Three zone dissolved air floatation clarifier with fixed lamellae and improved paddle-and-ramp sludge removal system
A compact dissolved-air-flotation (DAF) clarifier treats raw water with suspended solid contaminants first in a flocculator at the center of an annular tank where microscopic air bubbles float flocked contaminants to form a floating sludge layer. The flocculator has a fixed, cylindrical sidewall. A first clarification, calming and degassing occur here. The water then flows radially outwardly into the tank with a straight cylindrical outer wall where further quiet clarification occurs. A third level of clarification occurs in a lower portion of the tank, specifically, within a set of fixed, inclined lamellae, where a final clarification occurs. The bottom wall of the tank has a set of apertures which allow a gravity flow of clarified water through a layer of pressurized gas to an underlying collection compartment. A set of rotating paddles push the sludge layer up a ramp to an opening in an inclined discharge conduit. The paddles extend generally from the region over the full surface area of the tank, to its outer wall, which is preferably cylindrical. The ramp twists about its radial axis, being shallower and longer at its outer edge and steeper and shorter at its inner edge. An offset drive operating through a belt rotates the paddles, a movable cylindrical wall surrounding the lower portion of the fixed flocculator wall, and at least one scraper secured at one end to the movable wall and extending radially under the lamellae.
 2001-01-16 
Get PDF - 12pp US6164456  Method and apparatus for isolation of trace materials from a heterogenous sample
An elutriation apparatus which combines pressurized liquid nozzles (16A) and the low energy air nozzles (20) producing bubbles for flotation and separation of trace materials in a heterogeneous mixture of materials is described. Quantitative separation of trace evidence is achieved by the apparatus by a closed system of mechanical separations using the water and the air to isolate and deposit trace evidence on a fine mesh screen filter (17) submerged in the water (24) in a container (23). The method provides a rapid, quantitative and inexpensive method for detection of the evidence in soil samples.
 2000-12-26 
Get PDF - 29pp US6106711  Fluid conditioning system and method
A fluid conditioning system and method is disclosed for coupling to a first solution source comprising a suspension solution and particles suspended in the suspension solution. The fluid conditioning system includes a containment vessel defining a treatment environment and including a wall defining a fluid passage and a having an inlet apparatus. The inlet apparatus is coupled to the solution source for receiving a solution stream and directing the solution stream through the passage helically along the cylindrical wall. The containment vessel includes a sparging apparatus disposed downstream of the inlet apparatus for introducing a gas into the solution stream, and an outlet for discharging the sparged solution stream. The system further includes a flotation tank disposed proximate the containment vessel outlet for receiving the discharged solution stream. The flotation tank is adapted to carry a predetermined volume of a second solution to effect flotation of the particles to the surface of the second solution. The flotation tank further includes a tank outlet for exiting processed effluent from the tank.
 2000-08-22 
Get PDF - 5pp US6103128  Method and apparatus for mixing gas with liquid

    A mixing device in the form of a centrifugal pump is used to mix gas (typically air) with liquid (typically effluent water, dispersion water, or waste paper pulp suspension, etc.). The pump is provided with a common inlet conduit for both the liquid and the gas so that liquid and gas flow freely and in an arbitrary ratio into the pump, that is there is no controlling or adjusting of the flows. The gas is allowed to either dissolve in the liquid or be mixed as small bubbles with the liquid, and any surplus gas is separated from the mixing device (e.g. by holes in the pump impeller leading to a rear portion of the pump which is attached to a vacuum source, such as a liquid ring pump). The liquid and gas dissolved therein, and small bubbles mixed therein, are discharged from the mixing device at a pressure that is raised from the inlet pressure, due to the action of the impeller, which pressure development enhances the dissolution of gas in the liquid. Treatment chemicals, such as flotation-enhancing chemicals, can be added to the liquid before it enters the centrifugal pump, and the outlet from the pump may be connected to a flotation tank or the like.
 2000-08-15 
Get PDF - 43pp US6098222  Vibratory patient support system
The present invention relates to a vibratory patient support system for providing therapeutic vibrational action or forces to a patient suffering from a respiratory ailment. The vibratory patient support system includes a rigid support frame such as a bed frame, a plurality of inflatable sacs supported upon the support frame with each sac having an upper surface so that the plurality of sacs forms a patient support surface. The inflatable sacs are pressurized and maintained at a predetermined pressure. This predetermined pressure may be a patient height and weight specific pressure profile. A vibrating component is provided separate from the apparatus for pressurizing and maintaining the air sacs at the predetermined pressure. The vibrating component vibrates at least a portion of the patient support surface at a predetermined frequency. In this manner, the plurality of air sacs are maintained at their predetermined pressure and the portion of the patient support surface is simultaneously vibrated at the predetermined frequency. The vibrating means are further variably controllable so that an operator can vary the frequency, magnitude or amplitude, and duration of the vibrating therapy. The vibratory patient support system may include a specialty low air loss bed configuration including vibrating means for vibrating a portion of the patient support surface of the low air loss sacs at the predetermined frequency.
 2000-08-08 
Get PDF - 17pp US6074557  Water treatment device and method
An apparatus for separating contaminants from a fluid stream is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a vessel containing a gas blanket. The apparatus will have contained therein a water skimmer member adapted for allowing for retention of the fluid stream. The apparatus further includes a first gas flotation cell contained within the vessel and arranged in series with the water skimmer so as to receive the fluid stream. Also included is an oil bucket positioned within the vessel and adapted to receive a portion of the fluid stream from the water skimmer and the first gas flotation cell. In one embodiment, the first gas flotation cell comprises a first screen member having a porous structure, a plate baffle having a first passage therein, and an eductor device adapted for introducing a gas stream into the fluid stream. In the preferred embodiment, the eductor device comprises a tube operatively associated with the vessel, the tube being in communication with the fluid stream; a nozzle member positioned within the tube and adapted to receive the fluid stream; a port formed on the tube and adapted to receive the gas contained within the gas blanket and introduce the gas into the elongated tube; and, a rotor member positioned within the tube and adapted to produce a properly sized and dispersed gas bubble array. Also, the apparatus may contain a plurality of gas flotation cells arranged in series so that the outlet of one feeds the inlet of another. A method of treating a fluid stream is also disclosed which utilizes the apparatus herein disclosed.
 2000-06-13 
Get PDF - 5pp US6068131  Method of removing carbon from fly ash
A froth flotation method is provided for removing carbon from fly ash which utilizes an environmental friendly conditioning agent. The conditioning agent preferably comprises a biodegradable oil which is added to a slurry containing raw fly ash and water. The conditioning agent renders the carbon in the fly ash hydrophobic such that upon aeration of the slurry, air bubbles attach to the carbon particles and carry them to the surface of the slurry in the form of a froth, such that the carbon may be removed.
 2000-05-30 
Get PDF - 4pp US6000552  Process for purification of a fiber suspension

    A process for the purification of a fiber suspension (deinking or white water) in which a mixture of fiber suspension and gas bubbles are jtted into a flotation tank in an upwardly directed manner toward the free surface of the pulp at a velocity of greater than Sm/s and the jet ends at or just below the free surface of the mixture.
 1999-12-14 
Get PDF - 37pp US5951875  Adsorptive bubble separation methods and systems for dewatering suspensions of microalgae and extracting components therefrom
A process and system are disclosed for recovering mixed carotenoids from the alga Dunaliella salina. The harvested cells are ruptured, typically by circulating the algal suspension at high pressure through a pump loop. The cells can then be dewatered by absorptive bubble separation techniques, including a froth floatation circuit that has a roughing zone and a concentrating zone. If further concentration is desired, the algal concentrate can be mechanically filtered in a cross flow microfiltration unit in the absence of flocculating agents with substantially no loss of carotenoids in the permeate. Various methods for extracting mixed carotenoids and other components from the algae are disclosed, including dense gas extraction, and extractions with natural and synthetic flavorants, and edible oils.
 1999-09-14 
Get PDF - 7pp US5935447  System and method for the recovery of oil in water emulsion spilled in water
A method for on line recovery of oil from an oil in water emulsion spilled in water includes the steps of: obtaining a stream of recovered material including an oil in water emulsion and water; inducing a gas into the stream and applying shear so as to provide a mixture wherein oil from the oil in water emulsion is adhered to bubbles of the gas; passing the mixture to a flotation compartment for allowing the oil adhered to the bubbles to rise to a surface of the mixture; and removing the oil from the surface of the mixture.
 1999-08-10 
Get PDF - 6pp US5935445  System and method for the recovery of oil in water emulsion spilled in water
A method for on line recovery of oil from an oil in water emulsion spilled in water includes the steps of: obtaining a stream of recovered material including an oil in water emulsion and water; injecting a gas into the stream and applying shear so as to provide an injected mixture wherein oil from the oil in water emulsion is adhered to bubbles of the gas; passing the injected mixture to a flotation compartment for allowing the oil adhered to the bubbles to rise to a surface of the injected mixture; and removing the oil from the surface of the injected mixture.
 1999-08-10 
Get PDF - 36pp US5910254  Method for dewatering microalgae with a bubble column
A process for dewatering an aqueous suspension of microalgae is disclosed in which the aqueous suspension of the algae is introduced into a bubble column or a modified bubble column for generating a froth of bubbles and adsorbed algal cells that can be separated from the aqueous suspension. In one advantageous embodiment, the bubble column is a multi-stage loop-flow flotation column that has three loop-flow zones, each of which is defined by a draft tube concentrically mounted in the column to divide each loop-flow zone into a riser and the downcomer. Fine bubbles of gas and brine are in cocurrent upward flow in the riser and in cocurrent downward flow the downcomer. A higher gas holdup is promoted in the riser than in the downcomer, thereby circulating the brine in loop-flow upwardly through the riser and downwardly through the downcomer. Liquid communication between adjacent loop-flow zones is substantially eliminated. A froth enriched in algae is generated that can be separated from the aqueous suspension. The process has application in the recovery of mixed carotenoids from Dunaliella salina.
 1999-06-08 
Get PDF - 8pp US5897772  Multi-stage flotation column
An apparatus and method are disclosed for environmental applications such as waste water treatment, de-inking of recycled paper, chemical/biochemical waste clean-up, and mineral beneficiation, using a multi-stage flotation column. A series of draft tubes arranged axially and separated by baffles provides individual mixing stages in the flotation column and a special gas distributor generates fine gas bubbles. The draft tubes create repetitive loop flow of the feed fluid in each flotation stage. This provides uniform distribution of the gas bubbles throughout the column and significantly enhances mixing and contacts of the gas bubbles with the impurities to be removed.
 1999-04-27 
Get PDF - 15pp US5879928  Composition for the treatment for municipal and industrial waste-water
A composition for the treatment of municipal and industrial waste-water. The composition comprises a yeast fermentation supernatant, preservatives and a non-ionic surfactant. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the composition comprises a fermentation supernatant from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture, sodium benzoate, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea and a non-ionic surfactant.
 1999-03-09 
Get PDF - 13pp US5863441  Three zone dissolved air flotation clarifier with improved efficiency
A compact dissolved-air-flotation (DAF) clarifier and clarification process utilize three zones for clarification which operate in sequence in a single clarifier. Raw water with suspended solids enters a flocculator at the center of an annular tank where microscopic air bubbles introduced to the inflow float flocked contaminants to form a floating sludge layer. A first clarification, calming and degassing occur here. The water then flows radially outwardly into the tank where further quiet clarification occurs. A third level of clarification occurs in a lower portion of the tank, specifically, in a set of plate-like lamellae, radial and conical, which form inclined channels where a final clarification occurs. The bottom wall of the tank has a set of apertures which allow a gravity flow of clarified water through a layer of pressurized gas to an underlying collection compartment. Level sensors control a valve in the clarified outflow line and an air bleed from the pressurized gas layer to regulate liquid levels in the clarifier. A set of rotating paddles push the sludge layer up a ramp to an inclined discharge conduit. Alternatively, a suction head with a mechanical skimmer sweeps around the tank to draw the sludge through a central hollow pipe to a discharge conduit. An offset drive operating through a belt rotates the sludge removal mechanism and the lamellae.
 1999-01-26 
Get PDF - 13pp US5846413  Three zone dissolved air flotation clarifier with improved efficiency
A compact dissolved-air-flotation (DAF) clarifier and clarification process utilize three zones for clarification which operate in sequence in a single clarifier. Raw water with suspended solids enters a flocculator at the center of an annular tank where microscopic air bubbles introduced to the inflow float flocked contaminants to form a floating sludge layer. A first clarification, calming and degassing occur here. The water then flows radially outwardly into the tank where further quiet clarification occurs. A third level of clarification occurs in a lower portion of the tank, specifically, in a set of plate-like lamellae, radial and conical, which form inclined channels where a final clarification occurs. The bottom wall of the tank has a set of apertures which allow a gravity flow of clarified water through a layer of pressurized gas to an underlying collection compartment. Level sensors control a valve in the clarified outflow line and an air bleed from the pressurized gas layer to regulate liquid levels in the clarifier. A set of rotating paddles push the sludge layer up a ramp to an inclined discharge conduit. Alternatively, a suction head with a mechanical skimmer sweeps around the tank to draw the sludge through a central hollow pipe to a discharge conduit. An offset drive operating through a belt rotates the sludge removal mechanism and the lamellae.
 1998-12-08 
Get PDF - 14pp US5814228  Flotation method and apparatus
Flotation apparatus (10) for removing finely divided bodies of an insoluble substance dispersed in an aqueous medium, such as oil and solids dispersed in water, comprises a vertical flotation column (12) having a feed inlet (14) and an outlet (22) for the aqueous medium, a sparging system (16) for generating gas bubbles rising upwardly in the aqueous medium to capture and raise the finely divided bodies of the insoluble substance to the surface of the aqueous medium in the column to form a layer (31) of the insoluble substance on the surface of the aqueous medium, a launder (18) for receiving an overflow of the insoluble substance and an outlet (20) for the insoluble substance in the launder. The apparatus (10) can be used in both countercurrent and co-current fashion. In a particular embodiment, the apparatus includes a mechanism for the intermittent dumping of the layer (31) of insoluble substance from the column (12).
 1998-09-29 
Get PDF - 23pp US5814210  Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles
A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators.
 1998-09-29 
Get PDF - 6pp US5766484  Dissolved gas floatation device
A dissolved gas flotation system for treatment of wastewater or contaminated water and having an improved flow pattern wherein the subnatant discharge outlet and the inlet distribution structures are located adjacent one another. Such a structural design takes advantage of the fluid flow patterns within the tank to maximize the effect of the air bubbles in separating solids from the fluid.
 1998-06-16 
Get PDF - 7pp US5759408  Method and equipment for treatment of a liquid flow to be cleaned and passed into a flotation plant or equivalent

    A method for treating a liquid flow to be cleaned passing through a flow line into a flotation plant including passing a portion of the liquid flow to be cleaned from the flow line along a first branch line into a pump. The suction capacity of the pump is regulated to draw in a direct flow of gas so that the pump sucks the gas as a direct flow. The drawn-in direct flow of gas is then mixed with the liquid flow in the pump and passed along a discharge pipe of the pump into a mixing part wherein the discharge pipe ends in a pressure release. The remaining portion of the liquid flow to be cleaned from the flow line is then passed along a second branch line into the mixing part. A liquid flow is discharged from the pressure release, the liquid flow including gas bubbles containing dissolved gas. The remaining portion of the liquid flow to be cleaned is then mixed with the liquid flow discharged from the pressure release to obtain a resultant flow which is then passed along a mixing duct into the flow line and further into the flotation plant.
 1998-06-02 
Get PDF - 19pp US5746910  Frothless flotation apparatus
A novel apparatus for use in frothless flotation. The apparatus includes a cover which is sealingly engaged to the top of the flotation column and a wash-water tank in communication with the upper part of the flotation column wherein the level in the wash-water tank is maintained at or above the level of the cover thereby preventing the formation of a froth layer in the column. The apparatus is adapted to recycle the pulp and the tails. Gas is introduced to the feed and/or recycled tails in motionless mixers. Bubble-pulp separators are provided which recirculate pulp to enhance the quality of the yield.
 1998-05-05 
Get PDF - 15pp US5693263  Sparger for producing gas bubbles in a liquid
A sparger (100) for producing gas bubbles in a liquid comprises a body member (102) having a gas inlet (105) and an outlet portion (106) provided with a gas outlet (108). The outlet portion (106) has an internal bore (110) which is in communication with the gas inlet (105) and the gas outlet (108). The bore (110) has opposite sides which converge in the direction of the outlet (108) to form a tapered region (112) in the bore (110). The bore (110) has a substantially constant diameter along at least a part of its length in an area between the tapered region (112) and the outlet (108). The sparger (100) further comprises a valve member (114) which is moveable into said tapered region (112) towards the outlet (108) for controlling the flow of gas through the outlet (108).
 1997-12-02 
Get PDF - 17pp US5656173  Method of removing dispersed oil from an oil in water emulsion employing aerated solutions within a coalescing media
A method of removing dispersed oil from an oil in water emulsion is accomplished by the steps of dissolving gas in water to form an aerated solution, introducing the emulsion and aerated solution into a treatment vessel in which is positioned a coalescing media formed by an assembly of closely spaced corrugated plates of oleophilic material, the emulsion and aerated solution passing in contact with the plates to cause oil droplets to coalescence on the plates and small gas bubbles carried with the aerated solution to adhere to the oil droplets to increase the buoyancy of the oil droplets so that the oil droplets more readily rise to the surface of the emulsion, accumulated oil being removed from the surface.
 1997-08-12 
Get PDF - 7pp US5651879  Cell for treating a liquid medium by means of flotation
The cell 1 includes an upper cylindrical chamber 2 comprising at its center over its entire height a vertical ink removal pipe 4. A lower lateral pipe 9 receives via an opening 10 a paper pulp feed diluted in water and is fed with air from an upper pipe 12. Injectors placed on the pipe 9 inject the paper pulp and air into the chamber 2. Each injector has the shape of a tube with a constant diameter and opens at its outlet extremity through about twelve honeycomb-shaped orifices, thus ensuring a satisfactory dispersion of the air. The air bubbles lift up the ink particles so as to form a foam evacuated by the pipe 4.
 1997-07-29 
Get PDF - 15pp US5643459  Flotation method and apparatus
Flotation apparatus (10) for removing finely divided bodies of an insoluble substance dispersed in an aqueous medium, such as oil and solids dispersed in water, comprises a vertical flotation column (12) having a feed inlet (14) and an outlet (22) for the aqueous medium, a sparging system (16) for generating gas bubbles rising upwardly in the aqueous medium to capture and raise the finely divided bodies of the insoluble substance to the surface of the aqueous medium in the column to form a layer (31) of the insoluble substance on the surface of the aqueous medium, a launder (18) for receiving an overflow of the insoluble substance and an outlet (20) for the insoluble substance in the launder. The apparatus (10) can be used in both countercurrent and co-current fashion. In a particular embodiment, the apparatus includes a mechanism for the intermittent dumping of the layer (31) of insoluble substance from the column (12).
 1997-07-01 
Get PDF - 44pp US5606754  Vibratory patient support system
The present invention relates to a vibratory patient support system for providing therapeutic vibrational action or forces to a patient suffering from a respiratory ailment. The vibratory patient support system includes a rigid support frame such as a bed frame, a plurality of inflatable sacs supported upon the support frame with each sac having an upper surface so that the plurality of sacs forms a patient support surface. The inflatable sacs are pressurized and maintained at a predetermined pressure. This predetermined pressure may be a patient height and weight specific pressure profile. A vibrating component is provided separate from the apparatus for pressurizing and maintaining the air sacs at the predetermined pressure. The vibrating component vibrates at least a portion of the patient support surface at a predetermined frequency. In this manner, the plurality of air sacs are maintained at their predetermined pressure and the portion of the patient support surface is simultaneously vibrated at the predetermined frequency. The vibrating means are further variably controllable so that an operator can vary the frequency, magnitude or amplitude, and duration of the vibrating therapy. The vibratory patient support system may include a specialty low air loss bed configuration including vibrating means for vibrating a portion of the patient support surface of the low air loss sacs at the predetermined frequency.
 1997-03-04 
Get PDF - 14pp US5584995  Floatation method and apparatus
Flotation apparatus (10) for removing finely divided bodies of an insoluble substance dispersed in an aqueous medium, such as oil and solids dispersed in water, comprises a vertical flotation column (12) having a feed inlet (14) and an outlet (22) for the aqueous medium, a sparging system (16) for generating gas bubbles rising upwardly in the aqueous medium to capture and raise the finely divided bodies of the insoluble substance to the surface of the aqueous medium in the column to form a layer (31) of the insoluble substance on the surface of the aqueous medium, a launder (18) for receiving an overflow of the insoluble substance and an outlet (20) for the insoluble substance in the launder. The apparatus (10) can be used in both countercurrent and co-current fashion. In a particular embodiment, the apparatus includes a mechanism for the intermittent dumping of the layer (31) of insoluble substance from the column (12).
 1996-12-17 
Get PDF - 8pp US5580463  Pressurized, sparged flotation column
A method for removing residual oil from oily water under pressure is provided. The method comprises flowing a liquid stream of an oily water downward through a vertically extended zone to remove the residual oil. A gas is injected into the lower end of the zone and at a rate sufficient to generate bubbles of a predetermined volume in the liquid stream. A sufficient pressure is maintained in the zone to control the rate of expansion of the bubbles to a volume compatible with oil droplets in the liquid stream during upward migration of the bubbles and the oil droplets. The rate of flow of the liquid stream from the lower end of the zone and the rate of flow of the gas from the upper end of the zone are regulated to collect residual oil from a quiescent volume within the upper portion of the zone.
 1996-12-03 
Get PDF - 9pp US5580185  Oil containment boom
A system for containing and collecting oil spills and other water surface contaminants is provided. More specifically, the invention comprises a plurality of oil containment boom sections adapted to be coupled together, each section including a body fabric made of assorted polyester and nylon substrates and having spaced heat sealed areas therein, a flotation log of sealed spiral-wound air-bubble material, a ballast preferably made of sand sealed inside a polyester tubing, an upper hand-hold strength member preferably made of closed-cell polyethylene foam sealed at the top of the oil boom and containing a tension strap having a selected tensile strength, a hand-hold loop sewn to the body fabric to aid in handling an retrieval, and a vertical stiffener made of plastic or aluminum sealed in the boom to aid during top flotation and freeboarding conditions.
 1996-12-03 
Get PDF - 9pp US5567319  High capacity single tank water clarification method
Raw feed water is continuously clarified at a large throughput rate in a single, shallow tank using a flotation process carried out simultaneously in multiple sectors of the tank. Raw water feeds into a rotating trough. A fixed manifold system in the trough dispenses pressurized water containing dissolved air to release microscopic air bubbles. A set of headers each radially extend outwardly from the rotating trough. Each header distributes water and bubbles to a sector of the tank with a net zero velocity. A set of rotating extractors each receive clarified water from the bottom of a preceding sector. A set of scoops skim floated sludge from the water in the tank. The sludge is lifted, as by the rotation of the scoop and/or by a pumped conduit, over the rotating trough to a sludge outlet pipe. In one form the scoop has at least two blades each with an eccentrically located, radially extending compartment that receives, lifts, and then dumps the skimmed sludge as the scoop rotates about its axis.
 1996-10-22 
Get PDF - 12pp US5554297  Process of removing surfactant from uncured concrete by flotation
Aggregate is separated from sludge consisting of, what is called, "the residual raw concrete" remaining in a raw concrete mixing truck from which raw (uncured) concrete has been discharged, and waste water resulting from washing the mixing truck. The sludge is stored in a pretreatment vessel. Then, air is forced into the sludge to form bubbles. A chemical admixture in the sludge is allowed to adhere to the bubbles, and an admixture coating within the sludge is removed, thereby promoting the hydration of the cement. Subsequently, the resultant sludge is dehydrated to obtain a dehydrated cake of high hardness. Powder formed of the same quality of the cake is spread over the cake, which is then cured for a few hours. The resultant cake is then crushed so that granular aggregate can be formed.
 1996-09-10 
Get PDF - 7pp US5545330  Water treatment system
A water treatment system and process separates contaminants from water by flotation, by forming a removable floating scum of impurities utilizing a bubbling process, by filtering out suspended solids, by stripping dissolved impurities from the water with air, by oxidizing organic compounds, by adsorbing organic compounds, and finally, by disinfecting. Utilization of the disclosed process and system will transform contaminated water into an environmentally suitable state.
 1996-08-13 
Get PDF - 4pp US5544760  Flotation of lead sulfides using rapeseed oil
An improved method for recovering lead sulfides from a mineral deposits. Pulverized mineral deposit material is mixed with water, agitated with pH adjustment from about 8 to about 10.5 to form a slurry. Rapeseed oil is added to the conditioned slurry to render the surface of the lead sulfide particles hydrophobic. After agitating and adding a frothing agent, air bubbles are injected into the resultant composition to cause hydrophobic lead sulfide particles to become attached to the air bubbles and to rise and form a froth fraction which is then separated and recovered. The process uses substantially non-toxic rapeseed oil as a hydrophilizing agent. The process is less environmentally damaging, less costly and more specific in separating lead sulfides from iron containing minerals which are normally present in ores together with the lead sulfides.
 1996-08-13 
Get PDF - 9pp US5544759  Procedure and apparatus for materials separation by pneumatic flotation
The invention relates to a method and an apparatus for the separation of hydrophobic substances by froth flotation that basically consists of feeding pulp in the form of a thin layer on at least a lower gas-permeable slanted surfaces in which low pressure gas is injected generating small bubbles that collect hydrophobic particles. The froth containing concentrate is separated and washed before removal in a froth reservoir formed by a lower gas-permeable slanted surface and a wall at its lower end. At the top of the wall, the froth overflows to a launder for removal. At the bottom of the wall, the pulp containing the tailings discharges through an opening. Froth washing is performed by means of baffles that force the froth to flow underneath water sprays.
 1996-08-13 
Get PDF - 10pp US5543043  Clarification of produced water in the oil and gas industry
Apparatus for clarifying produced water. A flotation chamber has a produced water inlet, a clean water outlet, and is segmented into a plurality of cells by baffles. An oil overflow compartment is in fluid communication with the upper portion of the chamber. Produced gas is introduced into each cell of the flotation chamber by porous sparger tubes creating bubbles of 100 to 1000 microns in diameter. The bubbles rise through the water removing any suspended oil particles. The gas exits through a gas outlet. The removed oil collects on the liquid surface of the produced water and overflows to the overflow compartment. Oil is removed from the overflow compartment via an oil outlet.
 1996-08-06 
Get PDF - 7pp US5514282  Food processing wastewater treatment and recovery process
A system and related method for the treatment of dairy and other food processing plant wastewaters provides recoverable by-products from two separate stages and a final water effluent clean enough for direct discharge or process reuse. The system provides an effective alternate to conventional wastewater treatment and includes, as its operating steps which provide useful by-products, dissolved air flotation and membrane separation. The recoverable by-products from these two unit operations are high in amino acids and provide sufficient nutritional value to permit their use as animal feed or fertilizer products.
 1996-05-07 
Get PDF - 11pp US5512133  Method for deinking recycled paper using a low flow elongated open top flotation vessel
A method for producing substantially ink-free pulp from recycle printed paper comprising first pulping the recycle paper in a hydrapulper with at least water and an agglomerating agent thereby producing a pulp. Ink particle agglomerates in the pulp are then removed by screening the pulp through at least one screen and by cleaning the pulp in a cyclone cleaner. Pulp together with small ink particles that escape the prior separation stages is then conducted from the cyclone cleaner through a standpipe at a consistency of about or less than 1% where particles of ink associate with small air bubbles and are elevated to the surface of the pulp where they accumulate as a froth which may be removed by overflowing. The process substantially reduces the amount of ink particles in recycled pulp as compared with conventional agglomeration deinking methods without the expense and complexity of traditional flotation cells, and also greatly reduces the amount of fiber loss associated with ink particle separation using conventional flotation methods.
 1996-04-30 
Get PDF - 8pp US5465676  Barnacle shield
A system for discouraging and inhibiting marine growth onto a boat's underwater hull surface comprising a plurality of sections of foam filled PVC pipe tied together to form a flotation frame, an envelope of flexible, polyethylene, bubble wrap material, of a size and shape to enclose the underwater part of a boat's hull, and affixed to and supported by the flotation frame, a sprinkler hose affixed to the flotation frame for injecting fresh water for washing the boat's underwater hull, and a plurality of drain/check valves mounted in the envelope for eliminating the wash down water in the envelope.
 1995-11-14 
Get PDF - 11pp US5437785  Apparatus for dissolved gas flotation in anaerobic wastewater treatment
An apparatus for gas entrainment of wastewater in an anaerobic wastewater treatment system, the use of which includes the steps of withdrawing wastewater from an anaerobic digester and piping it into a flotation container. Thereafter the wastewater is pumped into a free standing tank having pressure in the tank maintained at a predetermined level through the injection into the tank of compressed gas generated by anaerobic digestion occurring in the treatment system. The wastewater is removed from the tank and pumped through a multiple jet configuration wherein gas from the tank is entrained in the wastewater as the water is injected back into the tank. The gas entrained water is then discharged from the tank back into the flotation container where the gas bubbles particles to the surface of the water to form a sludge layer. The sludge layer formed on the surface of the water in the flotation container is recycled to the digester for further increased digestion, thereby providing an efficient flotation process with increased wastewater clarification, reduced disturbance of the anaerobic bacterial sludge layer, and efficient utilization of the gas generated by anaerobic digestion in the system.
 1995-08-01 
Get PDF - 17pp US5423981  Wastewater treatment apparatus
A wastewater treatment system for treating wastewater containing undesirable pollutants which comprises a housing having a bottom and defining an internal chamber. The internal chamber is provided with a first and second baffle member which cooperate to define a mixing zone and a separation zone. Wastewater (containing a sufficient amount of air so that the air present in the wastewater exceeds the solubility of air in the wastewater) is introduced into the mixing zone of the internal chamber, and an aerated water is sprayed into the wastewater to produce a quantity of air bubbles sufficient to promote the flotation of pollutants having a density approximately equal to that of the wastewater to form a froth. Pollutants having a density substantially greater than the density of water settled to the bottom portion of the housing. An effluent reservoir assembly (which forms a reservoir zone) is spatially disposed from the second baffle member so that a quiescent zone is formed therebetween. The effluent reservoir assembly is provided with a fluid inlet opening and a fluid outlet opening and defines a fluid flow passageway between the reservoir zone, the first quiescent zone and the effluent discharge zone.
 1995-06-13 
Get PDF - 10pp US5415771  High capacity single tank water clarification system
Raw feed water is continuously clarified at a large throughput rate in a single, shallow tank using a flotation process carried out simultaneously in multiple sectors of the tank. Raw water feeds into a rotating trough. A fixed manifold system in the trough dispenses pressurized water containing dissolved air to release microscopic air bubbles. A set of headers each radially extend outwardly from the rotating trough. Each header distributes water and bubbles to a sector of the tank with a net zero velocity. A set of rotating extractors each receive clarified water from the bottom of a preceding sector. A set of scoops skim floated sludge from the water in the tank. The sludge is lifted, as by the rotation of the scoop and/or by a pumped conduit, over the rotating trough to a sludge outlet pipe. In one form the scoop has at least two blades each with an eccentrically located, radially extending compartment that receives, lifts, and then dumps the skimmed sludge as the scoop rotates about its axis.
 1995-05-16 
Get PDF - 22pp US5397001  Apparatus for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles
An apparatus is disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal, and minerals so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators.
 1995-03-14 
Get PDF - 9pp US5376266  Water clarification method and apparatus
This invention pertains to a multi-stage separator vessel through which the to-be-cleaned fluid flows. Aeration assemblies within the inner cells disperse micro-fine gas bubbles into the fluid for cleaning purposes. Additionally, the inlet piping contains a separator that begins the separation process before this fluid is discharged into the first cell. An L-shaped passageway interconnects the various flotation cells of this separator with the entrance of each such passageway being at an elevation below its exit. A weir is located within each flotation cell that is adjustable as needed. This weir empties into a channel alongside the separator vessel that collects the separated contaminants flowing over the weir for later disposal.
 1994-12-27 
Get PDF - 8pp US5341938  Method of separating materials in a flotation reactor
A method of separating desired material from undesired material is provided. The method is performed by forming a slurry of material and introducing it into a specially designed flotation reactor chamber. A foam is generated and introduced into the reactor chamber and dispersed into the slurry. A stream of water is provided to separate the undesired portion of the material from the desired portion of the material that has adhered to the bubbles in the foam.
 1994-08-30 
Get PDF - 13pp US5320750  Water clarifier with first filtrate isolation, improved backwashing and improved bubble generation
A two stage raw water clarifier with first stage flotation and second stage filtration divides at least the lower portion of a flotation tank into independent cells. A branched slotted conduit located in a filter medium in each cell collects clarified water. Valves control the flow of clarified water from each branched conduit either to a clarified water ring conduit or to a first filtrate/backwash ring conduit connected to a storage tank. The filter media is preferably a dual media, a layer of anthracite or activated carbon over a layer of sand. High cell walls and inclined baffles in each cell retain the filter media during backwashing. The baffles also slow the flotation process. A decompression valve for pressurized water with dissolved air has a very narrow annular slot in the flow path through the valve to create microscopic air bubbles of optimal size for the flotation. A movable member sets this annular slot at a proper value. A mechanical or pneumatic actuator moves the member periodically to open the slot and flush out trapped particles.
 1994-06-14 
Get PDF - 11pp US5310485  Process for dissolved gas flotation in anaerobic wastewater treatment
A process for gas entrainment of wastewater in an anaerobic wastewater treatment system includes the steps of withdrawing wastewater from an anaerobic digester and piping it into a flotation container. Thereafter the wastewater is pumped into a free standing tank having pressure in the tank maintained at a predetermined level through the injection into the tank of compressed gas generated by anaerobic digestion occurring in the treatment system. The wastewater is removed from the tank and pumped through a multiple jet configuration wherein gas from the tank is entrained in the wastewater as the water is injected back into the tank. The gas entrained water is then discharged from the tank back into the flotation container where the gas bubbles particles to the surface of the water to form a sludge layer. The sludge layer formed on the surface of the water in the flotation container is recycled to the digester for further increased digestion, thereby providing an efficient flotation process with increased wastewater clarification, reduced disturbance of the anaerobic bacterial sludge layer, and efficient utilization of the gas generated by anaerobic digestion in the system.
 1994-05-10 
Get PDF - 6pp US5309665  Flying action fishing line
The flying action fishing lure includes a body which is oval or torpedo shaped and has a pair of wings engaged thereon to simulate the shape of an insect. The lure has an elevated line engaging eye mounted to the body as well as a fixed in position single or multiple pronged hook depending therefrom. The body of the lure is partially hollow, trapping a bubble of air therein which is dimensioned to provide a zero flotation coefficient. Action is produced by application of steady pressure to a line engaging the lure causing a sideway slip as well as rotational motion and in and out of water flying action to the lure.
 1994-05-10 
Get PDF - 19pp US5303871  Process for treating contaminated soil
A process for the purification of soil contaminated with organic material is provided. The preferred process generally involves superposed attrition and classification processes, which lead to removal and concentration of highly contaminated fractions. The process may also include a step of flotation whereby hydrophobic materials in the soil are released to an interface with air bubbles, and are floated to the top of a flotation cell. In preferred processes according to the present invention, soil to be treated is extracted from a contaminated site, and is broken into relatively small particles. These particles are preferably treated in attrition and classification steps, to remove fine, slow settling contaminated materials such as wood and fine soil materials. The resulting isolated coarser materials are then treated by flotation for a final polishing step. The process is particularly well adapted for use in treating soils contaminated with oil and grease materials containing PCP therein, from wood treatment plants or the like.
 1994-04-19 
Get PDF - 19pp US5288737  Wastewater treatment apparatus
A wastewater treatment system for treating wastewater containing undesirable pollutants which comprises a housing having a bottom and defining an internal chamber. The internal chamber is provided with a first and second baffle member which cooperate to define a mixing zone and a separation zone. Wastewater (containing a sufficient amount of air so that the air present in the wastewater exceeds the solubility of air in the wastewater) is introduced into the mixing zone of the internal chamber, and an aerated water is sprayed into the wastewater to produce a quantity of air bubbles sufficient to promote the flotation of pollutants having a density approximately equal to that of the wastewater to form a froth. Pollutants having a density substantially greater than the density of water settled to the bottom portion of the housing. An effluent reservoir assembly (which forms a reservoir zone) is spatially disposed from the second baffle member so that a quiescent zone is formed therebetween. The effluent reservoir assembly is provided with a fluid inlet opening and a fluid outlet opening and defines a fluid flow passageway between the reservoir zone, the first quiescent zone and the effluent discharge zone. When it is determined that the wastewater should be subjected to additional treatment, an effluent transfer assembly can be incorporated into the housing for selectively passing a portion of the treated wastewater from the effluent reservoir assembly to the mixing zone of a treatment cell. In such instance, additional air is introduced into the treated wastewater prior to discharge into the mixing zone to promote mixing and to insure that the amount of air present in the treated wastewater is an amount sufficient to exceed the solubility of air in the treated wastewater. An effluent discharge assembly is supported by the housing in a spatially disposed position relative to the effluent reservoir assembly so as to define the effluent discharge zone of the chamber therebetween. The effluent discharge assembly is adapted to discharge the treated wastewater from the effluent discharge zone for discharge into a sewer or for reuse.
 1994-02-22 
Get PDF - 9pp US5277803  Water clarification method and apparatus
This invention pertains to a multi-st vessel through which the to-be-cleaned fluid flows. Aeration assemblies within the inner cells disperse micro-fine gas bubbles into the fluid for cleaning purposes. Additionally, the inlet piping contains a separator that begins the separation process before this fluid is discharged into the first cell. An L-shaped passageway interconnects the various flotation cells of this separator with the entrance of each such passageway being at an elevation below its exit. A weir is located within each flotation cell that is adjustable as needed. This weir empties into a channel alongside the seprator vessel that collects the separated contaminants flowing over the weir for later disposal.
 1994-01-11 
Get PDF - 23pp US5275732  Combined coarse and fine bubble separation system
A high rate multi-stage bubble separation process is developed for: (a) initially generating coarse gas bubbles with diameters greater than 80 microns in turbulent hydraulic condition to mix an influent water with chemicals, enzymes, microorganisms, or combinations thereof, to produce chemical flocs, biological flocs or both, and to strip volatile contaminants from water; (b) subsequently terminating coarse gas bubbles and generating extremely fine gas bubbles with diameters smaller than 80 microns in laminar hydraulic condition to float suspended, oily and surface-active contaminants together with said chemical flocs and said biological flocs from water, to settle heavy contaminants from water, and to produce a clarified effluent water, a floating scum, and a sludge; (c) terminating the fine gas bubbles and discharging the clarified effluent water; (d) discharging the floating scum and the sludge upon demand; and (e) optionally collecting and treating an emitted gas stream resulting from said coarse gas bubbles and said fine gas bubbles.
 1994-01-04 
Get PDF - 8pp US5266240  Flotation reactor with external bubble generator
A foam flotation reactor for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic products is provided. The reactor combines a material to be beneficiated, collector reagents, and a stream of specifically generated gas bubbles, in order to collect the desired product in the foam in a more efficient manner. A narrowed upper part of the reactor and accompanying water sprays force separation of undesired particles. A foam generator efficiently supplies a bubbly liquid/frothing agent to the reactor.
 1993-11-30 
Get PDF - 9pp US5256299  Method and apparatus for liquid treatment
An improved method and apparatus for purifying liquid in a square or rectangular tank involving ultra violet (UV) treatment, oxidation, flotation, filtration, effluent purging and disinfection is described. The liquid to be treated is fed into the mixing chamber of the apparatus in the presence of UV light and an oxident (ozone and/or hydrogen peroxide), and then discharged into the flotation chamber for gas stripping of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and flotation removal of floating substances. The subnatant in flotation chamber flows downward through multiple automatic backwash liquid phase granular activated carbon (GAC) filters for final polishing before being discharged as the liquid effluent or further disinfected. The flotation chamber is hooded for collection of gas stream which is moved by a gas mover and purified by a gas phase granular activated carbon (GAC) filter. The gas effluent from said gas phase GAC filter is recycled to said flotation chamber for reproduction of gas bubbles, and elimination of secondary air pollution. The multiple liquid phase GAC filters when dirty are backwashed by backwash means comprising a backwash hood, mechanical gears, backwash pump(s), solid-liquid separators, and control means which are mounted on a moving carriage. During backwash, the backwash hood which has identical shape of a liquid phase GAC filter sits on the top of a liquid phase GAC filter, and the liquid phase GAC is suspended and washed by backwash pump(s) using clean water. The dirty backwash wastewater is recycled to the intake header for water treatment thus eliminating secondary water pollution. The floating substances on the liquid surface of said flotation chamber are skimmed off by a removal mechanism for disposal as the waste sludge. The liquid phase GAC when its regeneration is due is pumped out from a liquid phase GAC fiter as a slurry by said backwash pump(s), and is separated by a solid-liquid separator for regeneration. A built-in purge system recycles a portion of said liquid phase GAC filter effluent for repeated treatment during filter backwash, thus upgrading the effluent quality.
 1993-10-26 
Get PDF - 6pp US5242600  Wastewater separation system
A wastewater flotation separation system is provided, which operates effectively with a minimum of maintenance. The apparatus includes a container (12) for holding wastewater, an inlet (14) located at a lower portion of the container, and an aerator (24) adjacent to the inlet for generating air bubbles that cling to waste particles to bring them to the water surface. A skimming apparatus (30) which skims particles off the surface of the wastewater into a sludge receiver (44) includes a beach device (42) with an inclined upper surface (40), and a belt device (34) that moves a series of scrapers (32) along the surface of the water and along the beach device into the sludge discharge. Each scraper includes a flap of resilient material which is bent as it scrapes along the inclined beach surface. The aerator includes an aerator chamber (16) substantially sealed from the rest of the container except at its top, with the wastewater inlet opening to the chamber so bubbles are applied along the upwardly-flowing stream of waste water that flows up along the box into the rest of the container. The aerator includes a rotor (80) with hollow blades coupled to an air tube, with the tips (104) of the blades having holes opening in a substantially circumferential direction to better distribute the air bubbles. Recirculation pipes (110, 112, 114) extend from locations at the bottom of the container to the bottom of the aerator chamber.
 1993-09-07 
Get PDF - 10pp US5234112  Flotation reactor with external bubble generator
A foam flotation reactor for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic products is provided. The reactor combines a material to be beneficiated, collector reagents, and a stream of specifically generated gas bubbles, in order to collect the desired product in the foam in a more efficient manner. A narrowed upper part of the reactor and accompanying water sprays force separation of undesired particles. A foam generator efficiently supplies a bubbly liquid/frothing agent to the reactor.
 1993-08-10 
Get PDF - 11pp US5217617  Multi-cell transportable bioslurry reactor
A transportable apparatus for biological treatment of a slurry of contaminated materials, including a series of square reactor cells having substantially parabolic lower portions, set at the same elevation and communicating in series. Gas diffusers are placed in each cell for aerating and mixing the slurry, and an airlift slurry transport system is employed for recirculating the slurry. The apparatus also has applicability to the treatment of water and waste water.
 1993-06-08 
Get PDF - 30pp US5182014  Method and apparatus for increasing flotation cell recovery and grade of complex copper-containing ores
Micron sized gas bubbles produced by electrolysis (e.g., oxygen and/or hydrogen gas bubbles by the electrolysis of water) are introduced into a flotation cell which is also provided with larger bubbles produced by sparging a gas such as air into the flotation cell. The mixed presence of both large bubbles and small bubbles serves to improve the recovery of various copper-containing ores. The small bubble producing electrodes can be retrofitted into an existing sparged gas driven flotation cell.
 1993-01-26 
Get PDF - 19pp US5173184  Wastewater treatment apparatus
A wastewater treatment system for treating wastewater containing undesirable pollutants which comprises a housing having a bottom and defining an internal chamber. The internal chamber is provided with a first and second baffle member which cooperate to define a mixing zone and a separation zone. Wastewater (containing a sufficient amount of air so that the air present in the wastewater exceeds the solubility of air in the wastewater) is introduced into the mixing zone of the internal chamber, and an aerated water is sprayed into the wastewater to produce a quantity of air bubbles sufficient to promote the flotation of pollutants having a density approximately equal to that of the wastewater to form a froth. Pollutants having a density substantially greater than the density of water settled to the bottom portion of the housing. An effluent reservoir assembly (which forms a reservoir zone) is spatially disposed from the second baffle member so that a quiescent zone is formed therebetween. The effluent reservoir assembly is provided with a fluid inlet opening and a fluid outlet opening and defines a fluid flow passageway between the reservoir zone, the first quiescent zone and the effluent discharge zone.
 1992-12-22 
Get PDF - 22pp US5167798  Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles
A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators.
 1992-12-01 
Get PDF - 18pp US5161694  Method for separating fine particles by selective hydrophobic coagulation
A process of selectively agglomerating coal in an aqueous environment while leaving the mineral matter dispersed has been developed. This process is autogenous for hydrophobic particles in that neither an agglomerating agent nor an electrolytic coagulant is needed. It is based on the finding that hydrophobic particles are pushed against each other by the surrounding water structure. This process, which is referred to as selective hydrophobic coagulation, is driven by the so-called hydrophobic interaction energy, which is not included in the classical DLVO theory describing the stability of lyophobic suspensions. The relatively small coagula formed by the selective hydrophobic coagulation process can be readily separated from the dispersed mineral matter by several different techniques such as screening, elutriation, sedimentation and froth flotation.
 1992-11-10 
Get PDF - 7pp US5160620  Method and apparatus for treating water

    Contaminated water is caused to flow up through a chamber while aerated to produce air bubbles of a size mainly in the range of 0.03 mm to 1 mm by means of air diffusors disposed at the bottom of the chamber. Organic and inorganic impurities in the water is, by a combination of water flow, flotation and physical adsorption caused by the air bubbles, brought to the surface of the water in the chamber, where a foam containing dissolved impurities is formed and instantly removed from the chamber while a mixture of water particles and microscopic air bubbles is allowed to flow over a partition wall into an adjacent basin having a considerably larger volume than that of the chamber. In the basin a flotation process will take place causing a slurry to form on the surface of the water in the basin, which is removed, preferably at the end of the basin opposite the chamber. The rising air bubbles from the diffusor in the chamber causes the water to circulate through the chamber and basin, the chamber and basin communicating above and below the partition wall. Preferably a biofilter medium having upwardly extending, intercrossing channels is disposed in the chamber.
 1992-11-03 
Get PDF - 9pp US5158678  Water clarification method and apparatus
This invention pertains to a multi-stage separator vessel through which the to-be-cleaned fluid flows. Aeration assemblies within the inner cells disperse micro-fine gas bubbles into the fluid for cleaning purposes. Additionally, the inlet piping contains a separator that begins the separation process before this fluid is discharged into the first cell. An L-shaped passageway interconnects the various flotation cells of this separator with the entrance of each such passageway being at an elevation below its exit. A weir is located within each flotation cell that is adjustable as needed. This weir empties into a channel alongside the separator vessel that collects the separated contaminants flowing over the weir for later disposal.
 1992-10-27 
Get PDF - 15pp US5156745  Induced gas liquid coalescer and flotation separator
Simplified single cell fluid flow apparatus for flotation removal of suspended impurities and liquids are provided wherein the method and apparatus are directed to an induced gas liquid coalescer for flotation separation of suspended impurities. The apparatus provides for a separation vessel which can be fabricated to withstand internal pressure requirements experienced in flotation separation devices wherein the apparatus induces maximum gas volumes consistent with optimum mass transfer of gas medium to suspended impurities in the liquid while controlling intercell or vessel chamber turbulence. Such maximum gas induction achieved without turbulence is through the use of microscopic gas bubbles. Such microscopic gas bubbles provide massive surface area with which the suspended impurities adhere and allows for various apparatus utilization. The continuous operation of the clarification separation is also enhanced by utilization of a sensing probe means for detecting high oil content in combination with diversion means for removing oil slugs to skim removal means as a result of reducing the clarified liquid removal from the bottom portion of the separation chamber. Resultant high oil concentration purge is achieved, nullifying contaminated effluent water discharge from the vessel.
 1992-10-20 
Get PDF - 15pp US5139662  Apparatus for clarifying water
An apparatus for clarifying water. The apparatus includes a mixing chamber for mixing the water to be clarified with pressurized water and air to obtain a mixture in which particles attached to air bubbles are suspended. The mixing chamber is connected to a flotation tank which holds a body of water whose upper surface is maintained at a predetermined level. The mixture, including the particles attached to air bubbles, is delivered by a distribution pipe from an upper part of the mixing chamber onto the surface of the water in the tank so that the floatables come to a floating position on the surface without causing agitation or turbulence below the surface. A skimmer rake skims the floatables to an outlet where they are removed from the tank leaving the water at the bottom of the tank clarified.
 1992-08-18 
Get PDF - 19pp US5115986  Process for treating contaminated soil
A process for the purification of soil contaminated with organic material is provided. The preferred process generally involves superposed attrition and classification processes, which lead to removal and concentration of highly contaminated fractions. The process may also include a step of flotation whereby hydrophobic materials in the soil are released to an interface with air bubbles, and are floated to the top of a flotation cell. In preferred processes according to the present invention, soil to be treated is extracted from a contaminated site, and is broken into relatively small particles. These particles are preferably treated in attrition and classification steps, to remove fine, slow settling contaminated materials such as wood and fine soil materials. The resulting isolated coarser materials are then treated by flotation for a final polishing step. The process is particularly well adapted for use in treating soils contaminated with oil and grease materials containing PCP therein, from wood treatment plants or the like.
 1992-05-26 
Get PDF - 6pp US5091083  Flotation separation system
A wastewater flotation separation system is provided, which operates effectively with a minimum of maintenance. The apparatus includes a container (12) for holding wastewater, an inlet (14) located at a lower portion of the container, and an aerator (24) adjacent to the inlet for generating air bubbles that cling to waste particles to bring them to the water surface. A skimming apparatus (30) which skims particles off the surface of the wastewater into a sludge receiver (44) includes a beach device (42) with an inclined upper surface (40), and a belt device (34) that moves a series of scrapers (32) along the surface of the water and along the beach device into the sludge discharge. Each scraper includes a flap of resilient material which is bent as it scrapes along the inclined beach surface. The aerator includes an aerator chamber (16) substantially sealed from the rest of the container except at its top, with the wastewater inlet opening to the chamber so bubbles are applied along the upwardly-flowing stream of waste water that flows up along the box into the rest of the container. The aerator includes a rotor (80) with hollow blades coupled to an air tube, with the tips (104) of the blades having holes opening in a substantially circumferential direction to better distribute the air bubbles. Recirculation pipes (110, 112, 114) extend from locations at the bottom of the container to the bottom of the aerator chamber.
 1992-02-25 
Get PDF - 12pp US5080802  Induced gas liquid coalescer and flotation separator
A simplified single cell fluid flow apparatus for flotation removal of suspended impurities and liquids are provided wherein the method and apparatus are directed to an induced gas liquid coalescer for flotation separation of suspended impurities. The apparatus provides for a separation vessel which can be fabricated to withstand internal pressure requirements experienced in flotation separation devices wherein the apparatus induces maximum gas volumes consistent with optimum mass transfer of gas medium to suspended impurities in the liquid while controlling intercell or vessel chamber turbulence. Such maximum gas induction achieved without turbulence is through the use of microscopic gas bubbles. Such microscopic gas bubbles provide massive surface area with which the suspended impurities adhere and allows for apparatus utilization which is smaller and more compact for comparative treatment volumes. The continuous operation of the clarification separation is also enhanced by utilization of a sensing probe means for detecting high oil content in combination with diversion means for removing oil slugs to skim removal means as a result of reducing the clarified liquid removal from the bottom portion of the separation chamber. Resultant high oil concentration purge is achieved, nullifying contaminated effluent water discharge from the vessel.
 1992-01-14 
Get PDF - 42pp US5007620  Apparatus for biological processing of metal-containing ores
An apparatus for use in bioleach processing of metal-bearing solids is disclosed. The apparatus includes a containment means adapted for containing a slurry made up of metal-bearing solids, a predetermined quantity of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and a species of microorganisms capable of oxidizing some portion of the metal-bearing solids and obtaining energy for growth from that oxidation. The apparatus further includes a plurality of horizontally oriented porous, flexible membrane diffusers adapted for introducing oxygen into the bottom of the reactor vessel in the form of small widely dispersed bubbles.
 1991-04-16 
Get PDF - 14pp US4997549  Air-sparged hydrocyclone separator
An apparatus and method for separating hydrophilic particles from a fluid suspension containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles. A generally cylindrical separation vessel includes tangential inlet and outlet ports. The fluid suspension is introduced into the separation vessel through the inlet port to circulate around the inner surface of the separation vessel in a forced vortex swirl flow. Air sparged through a porous wall portion of the side walls of the separation vessel forms air bubbles to which attach hydrophobic particles in particle/bubble aggregates. These migrate as a froth towards the axial center of the separation vessel where they are discharged at the upper end thereof. A froth washing tube having an open end proximate to the upper end of the separation vessel discharges pressurized water thereinto. A deflector located opposite the open end of the froth washing tube causes the momentum of the pressurized water discharged to be directed radially outward from the open end of the froth washing tube in a spray that passes through the froth toward the side walls of the separation vessel, removing hydrophilic particles entrained in the froth. Optionally, the froth is discharged from the separation vessel through a vortex finder, and a froth pedestal is located within the lower end of the separation vessel.
 1991-03-05 
Get PDF - 12pp US4986903  Induced static single flotation cell
The invention relates to an apparatus for removal of suspended matter from a liquid, such as used for treatment of oil containing water. A cylindrical horizontal vessel is divided into a single gasification chamber and a single degasification chamber by a partition which extends through the interior chamber of the vessel and allows fluid communication between the two chambers. A liquid to be treated is introduced through distribution header(s) adjacent a bottom of the vessel and/or an alternative inlet nozzle which is combined with a gas eductor in order to achieve a more intimate mixture of the gas and liquid. The gas eductor has its outlet slightly above the outlet of the distribution headers. The released gas bubbles carry oil and suspended matter towards the upper portion of the vessel, from which the froth is collected through a primary skim collection trough which extends through the gasification chamber and from a vertically adjustable, based on specific gravity, secondary skim collection funnel in the degasification chamber. Skim collection is accomplished through control of the liquid level in the vessel.
 1991-01-22 
Get PDF - 28pp US4981582  Process and apparatus for separating fine particles by microbubble flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles
A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine particles, especially coal, so as to produce a high purity and large recovery efficiently. This is accomplished through the use of a high aspect ratio flotation column, microbubbles, and a countercurrent use of wash water to gently wash the froth. Also, disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a high efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or an in-line static generator.
 1991-01-01 
Get PDF - 41pp US4974816  Method and apparatus for biological processing of metal-containing ores
A method and attendant apparatus for use in bioleach processing of metal-bearing solids is disclosed. The method includes the placement into a tank of metal-bearing solids, a predetermined quantity of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and a species of microorganisms capable of oxidizing some portion of the metal-bearing solids and obtaining energy for growth from that oxidation. The slurry formed by this placement is continuously filtered to remove process delimiting metabolic end products products by the oxidation reaction. The ratios of the various slurry components are monitored and controlled to effectuate an optimized environment for oxidation to occur. The attendant apparatus includes a means of introducing oxygen into the bottom of the reactor vessel in the form of small widely dispersed bubbles.
 1990-12-04 
Get PDF - 9pp US4911826  Sparging system for column flotation
A system for sparging aerated water into a column for the froth flotation of minerals, and located in the lower portion of the column, consists of water and air supply headers connected to a supply of pressurized water and air, respectively. The headers comprise a number of water and air passages, each having shut off valves. A multiplicity of sparger tubes is arranged, in one or more horizontal planes, either radially towards the column center or parallel to each other from opposite sides of the column. Each sparger pipe comprises a mixing tee attached to a water passage and an air passage, and a perforated portion provided with a number of small openings. The number of openings in each pipe is determined by the cross-sectional area covered by the sparger pipe. The openings may be arranged upwardly and/or downwardly at an angle in the range of about 5° to 90° from the horizontal. The openings are preferably arranged in a single row and directed vertically downwardly, or in two parallel rows and directed radially downwardly at an angle of 5° to 75° from the horizontal. Each opening is provided with a wear-resistant material, preferably in the form of an insert and preferably made of tungsten carbide, to reduce erosion of the openings. The number of openings is chosen such that the air bubbles exit from the openings and rise in the column substantially evenly distributed over the entire cross section of the column.
 1990-03-27 
Get PDF - 5pp US4904373  Fossil resin flotation from coal by selective coagulation and depression of coal
disclosed is a process for separating resin from a mixture of resin-bearing coal particles by increasing the pH of a froth flotation process to a value of at least 12. Particles of reduced size resin-bearing coal are preferably mixed with water to from a slurry. The pH of the slurry is then adjusted with a chemical agent to about 12. The slurry is then subjected to froth flotation. The coal particles aggregate to one another allowing the remaining resin-rich particles to attach to the bubbles formed during the flotation process. A much improved separation efficiency for resin flotation from coal is observed.
 1990-02-27 
Get PDF - 7pp US4889638  Agitation and/or gas separation and dispersed gas flotation
A method of, and apparatus for, separating phases in a polyphase system is described and particularly in separating oil from produced water by the contact of gas bubbles and oil droplets by a dispersed gas flotation technique. A polyphase system is divided into at least two portions. The pressure of one portion is reduced to form bubbles of a gas, and the two portions are then recombined whereby the bubbles in the mixture enhances flotation, and hence separation of the dispensed phase, e.g. oil, from the continuous phase, e.g. water. The invention has particular application in the oil industry and in other fields where efficient separation is required.
 1989-12-26 
Get PDF - 9pp US4844595  Viewing device for flotation body
In accordance with the present invention a viewing device for flotation bodies is provided which comprises a body having an interior defined by its side walls and at least one transparent end wall. In one embodiment using two transparent end walls, the transparent end walls define spaced-apart viewing ports, one port being normally above the surface of the water and the opposite port being below the surface of the water. The interior of the body is adapted to be substantially condensation free by evacuating the interior of the body and sealing the body in the evacuated condition or, more preferably, filling the body with a fluid to the exclusion of air so that condensation and air bubbles are thereby avoided. In a preferred embodiment the viewing device consists of a single piece body having a single transparent end wall.
 1989-07-04 
Get PDF - 7pp US4790944  Process and apparatus for the separation of foreign matter from a liquid by flotation
A process for the separation of foreign matter from a liquid, which process comprises mixing a stream of contaminated liquid containing dissolved gas with a stream of induced gas to provide a multi-phase flow, subjecting the multi-phase flow to turbulence and shearing thereby to produce a well dispersed bubbly liquid stream, passing the bubbly liquid stream into a vessel which contains the liquid contaminated with foreign matter, below the free surface of the liquid, and allowing the bubbles of gas to rise to the surface of the liquid, the surface adherence between the gas bubbles and the particles of foreign matter causing the particles of foreign matter to float to the surface of the liquid.
 1988-12-13 
Get PDF - 5pp US4780207  Method for the anaerobic purification of waste water
For the anaerobic purification of waste water it is difficult to maintain good operative contact between sludge particles with bacteria and water to be purified, i.e. sufficiently freely floating sludge particles, which means avoiding the formation of a dense settled layer of active sludge and avoiding easy washing away of sludge with the water in the usual upward flow thereof. The invention proposes the generation of a downward flow of the water to be purified in a reaction chamber and the introduction of an oxygen-free gas to contact the active sludge particles so that gas bubbles adhere thereto and keep them buoyant as much as possible notwithstanding said downward flow. Any sludge moving downwards with the water too much enters a flotation device near the top of the reaction chamber, from which it overflows to be returned wholly or partially to the reaction chamber. Preferably, the reaction chamber has a central riser pipe leading water with some sludge from the bottom of the reaction chamber upwardly to the flotation device.
 1988-10-25 
Get PDF - 9pp US4743408  Device for introducing a gas into liquid

    A device for continuously introducing a gas into a liquid, in connection with a flotation operation, a deinking unit or the like. The liquid issues from an endless annular gap (6) which does not have any internal obstacles whatever such as boundary walls or the like and, after absorbing the gas, flows into a radial diffuser (14) from which the liquid, enriched with gas bubbles, issues into the treatment container of the apparatus. Therefore, for a treatment tank of circular cross-section, a single gasification device which is disposed centrally in the vicinity of the bottom is sufficient. An optional swirl flow may be produced by suitable deflection in the region of the diffuser or in the chamber for the liquid, which is disposed upstream in the annular gap.
 1988-05-10 
Get PDF - 19pp US4743271  Process for producing a clean hydrocarbon fuel
This invention discloses processes for the treatment of coal and coal derivatives in order to remove contaminates to produce a high purity coal product. The processes generally comprise a sequential acid leaching in which a hydrofluoric acid leach is followed by a hydrochloric acid leach. The pyrite and other heavy metals from the coal are removed by physical separation, either gravity or magnetic separation. The leached coal is then treated either by a washing and drying step or by a heat treatment to remove volatile halides. The HF acid and the HCl acid leachates are recovered for regeneration of the respective leachates and are recycled for use in the leaching steps. In additional processing, the coal may be pre-treated by a mild HCl acid leach and by pre-drying or physical beneficiation of the coal feedstock.
 1988-05-10 
Get PDF - 9pp US4735709  Method and apparatus for concentration of minerals by froth flotation using dual aeration
A froth flotation system for separating a mineral fraction from an aqueous pulp containing a mixture of mineral and gangue particles. The aqueous pulp is supplied to a pulp-filled vessel (or column) wherein a froth is formed on the surface of the pulp and collected in a launder. Gas bubbles are introduced into the pulp in the vessel by two different means to generate the froth. In accordance with one means, water is aspirated into a stream of pressurized gas (air) to form a stream of aerated water which is injected into the lower portion of the pulp-filled vessel. In accordance, the other means, a second stream of pressurized gas (air), is sparged through a porous wall of one or more micro-diffusers located within the vessel. The dual means for generating bubbles produces a significantly higher level of mineral separation than can be achieved from either means separately.
 1988-04-05 
Get PDF - 7pp US4724071  Selective resin flotation from coal by controlled oxidation
Disclosed is a process for separating resin from reduced size resin-bearing coal particles by treating the particles with ozone. Particles of reduced size resin-bearing coal are preferably mixed with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with ozone for a short length of time. The slurry is then subjected to froth flotation. The ozone selectively oxidizes the coal, decreasing its hydrophobicity causing the relatively more hydrophobic resin to attach to the bubbles formed during the flotation process. A much improved separation efficiency for resin flotation from coal is observed.
 1988-02-09 
Get PDF - 13pp US4639313  Floatation apparatus for concentration of minerals from high water content aqueous slurries
The invention relates to the concentration and beneficiation of particulate matter by froth flotation and in particular to improvements in hydraulic-pneumatic flotation apparatus which contribute to the efficiency of operation. Such apparatus employs a constriction plate which separates vertically arranged flotation and hydraulic compartments. A discharge duct may be used to extend through the hydraulic compartment and to open through the constriction plate centrally thereof. Orifices in both the constriction plate are in communication with the hydraulic compartment to provide a uniform dispersion of air bubbles in the flotation compartment. Aerated water distribution manifolds within the hydraulic compartment and within the lower portion of the flotation compartment are provided to enter the aerated water into the flotation compartment substantially uniformly throughout a horizontal cross-section thereof. In order to minimize the energy consumption of the apparatus and to provide for the introduction of aerated water at a reduced flow rate, amenable to the separation of aqueous pulps having a low concentration of solid matter by volume, such as sulfides, a stream of pressurized air is passed through an eductor wherein a mixture of water and, if desired, an appropriate surfactant is aspirated into the stream of flowing pressurized air. The flowing stream of pressurized air and the aspirated water and surfactant are then passed through a venturi region, producing a highly aerated, low water volume stream of aerated water for delivery to the hydraulic compartment.
 1987-01-27 
Get PDF - 14pp US4623436  Method and apparatus for removing impurities from liquids
In a method and apparatus for removing impurities from a liquid, the liquid containing impurities is supplied to an electrolytic bath at a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure. Electrolysis is performed by applying a voltage to electrodes consisting of a metal which easily dissolves upon electrolysis. The liquid is then exposed to atmospheric pressure, and is treated in a flotation separation tank. Fine bubbles formed during the treatment of the liquid in the flotation separation tank attach to the impurities flocculated in the liquid by electrolysis. The flotation separation of the flocculated impurities is performed very efficiently, and high-purity water can be recovered.The apparatus comprises an electrolytic bath consisting of a pressure vessel, in which electrodes of a metal which easily dissolves upon electrolysis are housed, and a constant current source for applying a voltage to said electrodes so as to obtain a predetermined current density in a liquid contained in said electrolytic bath, wherein impurities in the liquid are caused to flocculate by a hydroxide of the metal.
 1986-11-18 
Get PDF - 9pp US4617113  Flotation separating system
Improvements in flotation separating systems of the type employing small rising air bubbles to induce ascension of certain types of particles in a flotation compartment while other particle types descend toward the bottom of the compartment include a bubble passing, particle blocking barrier forming the bottom of the compartment separating the compartment from a source of air bubbles while allowing the introduction of a uniform distribution of air bubbles into the compartment in the form of a gently sloped conical plate having a plurality of aerated water passing apertures and an array of downwardly extending pocket forming baffles for limiting bubble migration along the slope of the lower plate surface. The baffles are generally configured as radially and circumferentially extending baffle portions. Particles are prevented from passing through the plate apertures by introducing additional sealing water flowing toward the barrier from beneath by way of a plurality of inwardly extending water supply pipes opening downwardly at their innermost ends. The flotation separating system is preferably of the water recirculating type and includes a readily removable strainer basket suspended in a water drainage path for collecting contaminants which are inadequately separated by the flotation process.
 1986-10-14 
Get PDF - 6pp US4611357  Flotation sleeping mattress constructions
Rudimentary prior art fluid-inflatable sleeping mattresses are of a simple six-sided shell construction having a spout for fluid introduction and evacuation. Disclosed are improved mattress constructions which, in addition to the prior art spouted six-sided shell, are internally provided with substantially parallel fluid-impervious baffle-panels resulting in solely terminally communicating internal chambers for the external shell and that drastically reduce abrupt fluid displacement phenomena as the reclining occupant moves about. For water-inflatable modes, one or more air-relief valves extend from internal chambers through the external shell to facilitate purging of air bubbles entrapped within the water flotation medium. An air-impervious cap for the spout means permits an internally baffled shell to be alternatively employed as an air-inflatable type flotation mattress.
 1986-09-16 
Get PDF - 7pp US4592834  Column froth flotation
The froth flotation device includes a flotation column partially filled with a packing which defines a large number of small flow passages extending in a circuitous pattern between the upper and lower portions of the column. A conditioned aqueous pulp of a mineral ore, such as iron ore, is introduced into the midzone of the column. A pressurized inert gas, such as air, is introduced into the bottom of the column and is forced upwardly through the flow passages in the packing. As the air flows upwardly through these flow passages, it is broken into fine bubbles which intimately contact the floatable particles (e.g., iron oxide) in the aqueous pulp and forms a froth concentrate or float fraction which overflows from the top of the column. Wash water is introduced into the top of the column and flows through the flow passages in the packing countercurrently to the float fraction to scrub entrained non-floatable particles (e.g., gangue) from the froth concentrate. A tailing fraction containing the non-floatable particles is withdrawn from the bottom of the column.
 1986-06-03 
Get PDF - 11pp US4478710  Separation method and apparatus
An elutriation apparatus which combines pressurized liquid jets and the low energy air bubble flotation for the separation is described. A manifolded set of multiple apparatus which increases operator efficiency is described. Quantitative separation of roots is achieved by the apparatus by a closed system of mechanical separations using water and air to isolate and deposit roots on a sieve submerged in the water. The method provides a rapid, quantitative and inexpensive method for measuring plant root responses to soil biological, chemical, and physical conditions.
 1984-10-23 
Get PDF - 11pp US4478645  Process for the purification of sugar syrups
A process for removing color, turbidity, flavor, and odor from impure, high Brix, sugar syrup involves entrapping the sugar impurities in an insoluble, primary calcium phosphate or aluminum hydroxide floc at about neutral pH, dividing the sugar syrup into a small portion and a large portion, aerating the small portion of the syrup at a specific Brix, recombining the small portion and the large portion, adding a polyelectrolyte to convert the primary floc into a secondary floc to which the air bubbles easily adhere and to cause flotation of said secondary floc, thus forming a scum mat at the top of the vessel. The purified sugar syrup is then filtered with or without activated carbon and small amounts of a filter aid to produce a sugar syrup with substantially reduced color, turbidity, flavor, and odor. The sugar in the scum is recovered by mixing it with water and allowing a second flotation to take place without any further aeration or chemicals addition.
 1984-10-23 
Get PDF - 6pp US4472271  Froth flotation apparatus and process
A non-diluting flotation apparatus and process is disclosed which includes a single cell, or a series of multiple cells. Each cell comprises a non-agitated, flotation vessel having a submerged inlet in its upper portion for feeding a previously treated or conditioned clay or ore suspension in water. The suspension flows downward in the vessel to an outlet from which a combined product and recycle stream is taken. Thereafter, a recycle stream is separated and air bubbles are entrained into the recycle stream which is returned to the lower portion of the cell. In the cell the entrained air rises as very small bubbles, flushing certain mineral impurities removed from the clay with the air. The air and impurities form a froth atop the liquid surface and the froth is mechanically removed.
 1984-09-18 
Get PDF - 9pp US4464343  Process for isotope separation
Process for separating isotopes of an element. A liquid feed mixture is prepared comprising an aqueous solvent and an ionic surfactant and containing two isotopes of a particular element and an ionizable compound that is present in the mixture. A gas is passed through a pool of the mixture to form bubbles therein, the surface of the bubbles having the surfactant thereon and one isotope of the element preferentially adsorbed thereto as a result of a chemical exchange between the surfactant and another component of the mixture. Thus, the concentration ratio of the isotopes at the bubble surface differs from that in the bulk of the pool. A top fraction is produced at the upper surface of the pool that is enriched in the one isotope as compared to the bulk of the pool. An overhead liquid fraction relatively enriched in the one isotope is collected from the top fraction.
 1984-08-07 
Get PDF - 12pp US4431531  Concentration of minerals by flotation apparatus
The invention relates to the concentration of particulate matter by froth flotation and in particular to improvements in hydraulic-pneumatic flotation apparatus. The apparatus includes an upstanding flotation compartment adapted to contain a relatively quiescent body of aqueous pulp. Aqueous pulp is introduced into and float fraction is collected from the upper portion of the floatation compartment, and a hydraulic chamber is disposed near the bottom of the compartment for supplying aerated water thereto. Retardation plate means spans the flotation compartment intermediate the ends thereof for retarding the descent of pulp therewithin. The plate means is provided with a plurality of apertures to receive rising air bubbles and descending pulp therethrough. Retarding or prolonging the descent of the aqueous pulp within the flotation compartment enhances the probability of floatable particles becoming attached to bubbles and thereby being recovered.A plurality of such retardation plate means may be used in vertically spaced relation to further enhance the recovery time and also to minimize development of circulating currents within the flotation compartment.
 1984-02-14 
Get PDF - 11pp US4382823  Process for the purification of sugar syrups
A process for removing color, turbidity, flavor, and odor from impure, high Brix, sugar syrup involves entrapping the sugar impurities in an insoluble, primary calcium phosphate or aluminum hydroxide floc at about neutral pH, dividing the sugar syrup into a small portion and a large portion, aerating the small portion of the syrup at a specific Brix, recombining the small portion and the large portion, adding a polyelectrolyte to convert the primary floc into a secondary floc to which the air bubbles easily adhere and to cause flotation of said secondary floc, thus forming a scum mat at the top of the vessel. The purified sugar syrup is then filtered with or without activated carbon and small amounts of a filter aid to produce a sugar syrup with substantially reduced color, turbidity, flavor, and odor. The sugar in the scum is recovered by mixing it with water and allowing a second flotation to take place without any further aeration or chemicals addition.
 1983-05-10 
Get PDF - 11pp US4377485  Apparatus and method for clarification of water using combined flotation and filtration processes
Apparatus and a method for removing suspended particles from water in a circular tank having a distribution and flocculation chamber immersed in the tank of water and carried circularly around the tank by a carriage. Flocculating material and inlet water are introduced into the body of water from the moving flocculating chamber at the same rate as clarified water is discharged through a filter substantially covering the bottom of the tank. A majority of particles in the water is collected by flocs in the water and floated to the water surface by air bubble action. The floating sludge is removed by a spiral scoop carried by the carriage. The water is then passed through the bottom filter which removes the remaining flocs completing the clarification of the water for discharge. Apparatus is provided for selectively back washing sections of the filter while the remainder of the filter is in operation.
 1983-03-22 
Get PDF - 14pp US4331534  Method of and arrangement for the de-inking of pulp suspensions

    A pulp suspension of waste paper which is laden with air bubbles is introduced into a flotation cell. Fine air bubbles rise through the pulp suspension toward the top. Printing ink and other impurities are deposited on the bubbles which form a foam layer on the surface of the pulp suspension. The foam which is laden with impurities is drawn off from the surface. The fibers which have been subjected to preliminary purification in this manner sink downwardly. For reducing the number of cells connected in series to fewer than a third, while obtaining the same degree of whiteness, the fibers which were subjected to preliminary purification are drawn off and are once again supplied to the flotation cell in the form of an air-laden pulp suspension. Alternatively, instead of the air-laden pulp suspension, a water-air suspension can be injected. The air bubbles which are thus introduced once again rise toward the top and traverse the sinking fibers in a counterflow. As a result, an intensive air-pulp contact is created.
 1982-05-25 
Get PDF - 7pp USRE30944  Continuous fermentation process and apparatus
A deep tank reactor is utilized for fermentation of waste liquid or other liquid in a biological reaction resulting in a solid cellular material. The resulting solid material, which is in suspension, is initially separated from the bulk of the liquid by a gaseous flotation process, using the dissolved gas in the liquid as the source of gaseous bubbles for flotation purposes.
 1982-05-25 
Get PDF - 8pp US4324652  Flotation method and apparatus for recovering crude oil from tar-sand
This invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for scrubbing crude oil (bitumen) from tar-sands, the apparatus being characterized by a heated vessel for maintaining the tar-sand/water slurry at between approximately 180°-200° F., a pair of counterrotating screw conveyors in the bottom of the vessel for agitating the sand and moving it to the discharge end, means for simultaneously diluting and aerating the incoming slurry that produces small bubbles effective to float the crude oil freed from the sand to the surface, an overflow wier running alongside the vessel for catching the oil skimmed off the surface of the water, transversely-extending endless chain-and-flight skimmers for skimming the oil into the wier, a bottom-opening discharge for the clean sand, and valves controlling the discharge of sand effective to remove the latter without lowering the fluid level in the vessel to a point where the oil previously released can reattach itself to the sand. The method encompasses the steps of submerging the tar-sand in a hot water bath agitating the sand while thus immersed while continuously bubbling air up through the slurry to float the oil particles freed from the sand grains to the surface, continuously skimming off the oil floating on the water bath from the surface thereof, and withdrawing the clean sand from the bottom of the vessel intermittently and quickly enough to prevent the level of the water bath from falling below the top of the screws.
 1982-04-13 
Get PDF - 4pp US4311595  Flotation process for purification of waste water
In a flotation method for purification of industrial or municipal waste water, in which the waste water comes in contact with electrodes having an electrical potential capable of electrolytically decomposing a portion of the waste water, thereby creating an ascending stream of gas bubbles, the waste water is mixed before or during the electrolytic decomposition with wettable particles of polymer material which are practically insoluble in water and have an absolute density of 1.3 g/cm.sup.3 at the most. Polymeric materials, especially polyalkane fibrids, are suitable for use as particles. This process makes it possible to purify oil-containing waste water by electroflotation without forming an oil film on the electrodes.
 1982-01-19 
Get PDF - 7pp US4308137  Water aeration and circulation apparatus
Self-contained treatment apparatus for a body of water includes a mounting assembly having flotation elements for fixedly supporting a circulation or agitation device below the surface of the water and driving or motor mechanism above the water surface. Actuation of the motor mechanism operates the circulation or agitation device such that naturally occurring oxygen-saturated water near the surface is drawn downwardly and mixed with the lower oxygen deficient reaches of the body of water and effecting a net increase in dissolved oxygen content. Optionally, actuation of the motor mechanism operates a bubble generator adjacent the water surface so that the air bubbles generated are drawn down with the oxygen-saturated surface water, where oxygen from the bubbles dissolves into the surrounding oxygen-deficient water, thus accelerating the improvement in dissolved oxygen content. Additionally, structure may be included for selective directional control of the oxygen-enriched discharge stream, so that a gentle flushing action can be applied against nutrient-rich sediments, sludges or residues accumulating on the bottom, thereby further improving the water quality.
 1981-12-29 
Get PDF - 7pp US4290979  Aeration apparatus
Apparatus for supplying air into a liquid can be used as an aeration apparatus for a biochemical waste water treatment system operating according to an activated sludge process, for example, or as an air bubble generator to be used in a solid particle flotation system. A liquid in a tank is circulated by a pump. An air intake device is disposed in a suction pipe connected to the pump. The air withdrawn by the air intake device is mixed and agitated with the liquid in the pump, whereby minute air bubbles are distributed throughout the liquid. The liquid containing air bubbles is fed from the pump to an injector disposed within the tank, and ejected thereby into the tank in the form of jet water streams.
 1981-09-22 
Get PDF - 7pp US4279754  Means for separation of gas and solids from waste mixed liquor
In a long vertical shaft activated sludge bioreactor for the treatment of waste water and the flotation/separation of solids therefrom, an improvement is provided whereby fluctuations in flow through the bioreactor are maintained level without the use of complex control mechanisms and whereby separation from the effluent of dispersed air bubbles occurs directly in the flotation/separation vessel rather than in the shaft or an auxiliary vessel. The improvement provides for the installation of a holding reservoir between the shaft and the flotation/separation vessel. Influent passes through the reservoir on its way to the bioreactor and some make-up effluent from the flotation/separation vessel is directed into the holding reservoir as the level of liquid in the reservoir falls. In addition, means are provided in the separation/flotation vessel to split off large dispersed gas bubbles which would otherwise disrupt sludge flotation.
 1981-07-21 
Get PDF - 6pp US4274959  Apparatus for dissolving air in water and subsequent reduction of the water surface tension in flotation systems
Waste water and sludge is supplied through an inlet 12 to a flotation basin 10 where a skimmer 14 collects floating solids and sweeps sunken solids into a bottom discharge trough. Water from the basin is drawn off through a line 16 and fed by pumps 18, 20 into an air pressurized container 26 through an ejector 24 which draws in and dissolves the compressed air in the water by aspiration or eduction. The air saturated water is then fed back into the basin through valves 42, 44 where the reduced pressure releases the air in the form of micro-bubbles, which reduce the surface tension of the waste water to release sludge particles and float them to the surface for skimming off.
 1981-06-23 
Get PDF - 5pp US4251361  Hybrid gas flotation separator
Oil and water mixtures are separated in a gas flotation separator by passing the mixture downward in a vertically elongated portion, and then upward in a vertically elongated portion. A gas such as air is injected near the lower end of the upward flow leg of the separator. The gas is injected at a sufficient hydrostatic pressure to effect dissolving of a substantial portion of the gas in the liquid. The upflow leg has a chamber for oil flotation. Oil removal as well as water removal from respective layers is provided. The separation of oil and water is enhanced by both upwardly bubbling gas and exsolving gas.
 1981-02-17 
Get PDF - 10pp US4234350  Process for the purification of evaporated sugar solutions
A process for the purification of evaporated sugar solutions prior to cryllization, utilizing the discovery that most of the suspended non-sugar particles within the evaporated sugar solution are hydrophobic in nature and thus thrown out of solution during the loss of water during the evaporation process, by thoroughly mixing air in large quantities with the evaporated sugar solution containing such particles and repeatedly subjecting the mixture of air, sugar solution and non-sugar particles to high shear forces by a surging flow with flow reversals through an aerator so as to produce a uniform creamy mixture of micron size bubbles to which the non-sugar particles are intimately and mechanically attached, having moved out of the evaporated sugar solution because of the hydrophobic character of the particles. Optionally, this aggregation of the particles with the micron size bubbles may be further increased by a controlled addition of an anionic partially hydrolized polyacrylamide following aeration. The removal of the aggregates is completed either by filtration or flotation.
 1980-11-18 
Get PDF - 8pp US4212730  Apparatus for separating and classifying diverse, liquid-suspended solids
Apparatus for utilizing the flotation separation process employs first and second chambers, the first chamber being positioned above the second chamber so that the tailings from the first chamber may be gravity fed into the second chamber. Both chambers include a plurality of spaced, air bubble infusers, each of which are fed by air and water pipes extending across the corresponding chamber. A plug and throat arrangement in a bulkhead between the first and second chambers allows control over the flow of tailings from the first chamber into the second chamber. Each infuser is designed so as to provide an even spread of the air bubbles emitted therefrom.
 1980-07-15 
Get PDF - 9pp US4186094  Apparatus for eliminating by flotation impurities in the form of solid particles contained in a liquid
Apparatus for eliminating impurities by flotation of such impurities wherein a stream of air is injected into a flow of liquid in a flotation cell so as to form distributed air bubbles fixed on the impurities, which air bubbles rise to the surface for their discharge as foam.
 1980-01-29 
Get PDF - 7pp US4186087  Method and apparatus for separating substances from liquids by flotation using bubbles
A method for separating substances from liquid by flotation using bubbles which comprises adsorbing a substance present in a liquid on bubbles, floating the bubbles adsorbing the substance and separating the substance from the bubbles, characterized by allowing the bubbles adsorbing the substance to ascend through a fluid route in a tube independent of the ambient turbulently flowing liquid and then collecting and separating the substance from the liquid at the upper end of the tube. An apparatus for separating substances from liquids by flotation using bubbles which comprises a vertical column provided at the bottom thereof with a gas-diffusing means and a tube placed inside the vertical column, the tube being smaller in diameter and length than the vertical column and being provided with a means for collecting bubbles at the lower end thereof and a means for accommodating and concentrating the collected bubbles at the upper end thereof. These method and apparatus are useful for the treatment of waste water and industrial effluents or of mineral extracts, especially for the purpose of recovering useful substances from a solution or suspension thereof or removing heavy metals and the like harmful substances from effluents.
 1980-01-29 
Get PDF - 4pp US4157952  Apparatus for deinking waste paper pulp
Apparatus for de-inking waste paper pulp using a foam flotation process in which the deinked slurry is to be recycled for the production of paper. The old paper is pulped (slushed), mixed with water and flotation- and other chemicals, to produce a slurry which is introduced into the flotation tank. Movement of the slurry through the flotation tank is achieved by the positioning of one or more water injector nozzles with air inlets which causes a swirling rotation from the injector towards a central outlet. Froth or foam bubbles float to the surface of the slurry carrying ink particles. A baffle plate leads the floated froth or foam and ink particles to a vacuum actuated outlet.
 1979-06-12 
Get PDF - 6pp US4152791  Fluid control arrangements, applicable to spa facilities
A spa facility includes a pliable container, and flexible hoses for connecting to the pump and heater of a conventional pool, as well as to a source of compressed air. A flotation member is secured to the rim of the container. A plastic dome includes double tubes along its rim, one filled with air and the other with water, and is inflated by the pressurized air bubbling up out of the spa container. The pliable container is supported by pool water and/or a supplemental stiff supporting container.
 1979-05-08 
Get PDF - 5pp US4146472  Process and apparatus for separating matter in suspension in a liquid
A flotation apparatus comprising a treatment chamber provided, at one of its ends, with an inlet for the liquid to be treated circulating without turbulence and, at the other end, an outlet for the treated liquid, an inlet pipe for the treatment water under high compression charged with gas being disposed at the lower part of said treatment chamber.In this apparatus the inlet pipe for the water under high compression is located below and in the neighborhood of the inlet for the liquid to be treated in the treatment chamber, an outlet pipe for the treatment water being disposed at the lower part of the chamber, below and in the neighborhood of the outlet for the treated liquid, means for allowing the passage of the micro-bubbles coming from the water under high compression being furthermore provided to create between the two ends of the chamber two distinct, superimposed and parallel flows, the upper one for the liquid to be treated, the lower one for the water under high compression.For the treatment of waste water from different industries.
 1979-03-27 
Get PDF - 12pp US4120776  Separation of bitumen from dry tar sands
A process for the separation and recovery of bitumen from dry tar sands or sands with negligible quantities of connate water. The process includes comminuting the tar sands to an average particle size of approximately one centimeter in diameter and digesting the comminuted tar sand in a hot, aqueous solution having a pH within the range of pH 10 to pH 14. Optimal digestion is obtained by assuring that the tar sand in the digester is within the range of 50 to 80% solids so as to provide the necessary high shear environment. The digested tar sand is thereafter subjected to a flotation process wherein additional water is introduced to lower the temperature and the solids concentration. Preferably, the pH of the separation cell is maintained above about pH 10. Air is bubbled into the mixture to carry the separated bitumen particles to the top of the separation cell for subsequent recovery.
 1978-10-17 
Get PDF - 19pp US4101464  Process for preparing foamed solids using two or more azo compounds
Cellular polymeric solids are made by mixing an acidulous or acidic polymerizable medium that is polymerizable and/or cross-linkable by a free radical mechanism (e.g. an unsaturated polyester) with an effective amount of two or more acid sensitive mono- or poly-azo compounds containing the group: [Figure] wherein Y is an acid sensitive group (e.g. Cl, OH, --OCN, --NCO) which in the presence of an acidulous or acidic polymerizable medium causes sufficient decompsition of the azo compound that gas is released in the medium and during the decomposition the mono- or poly- azo compound promotes polymerization and/or cross-linking of the medium to provide a matrix that is sufficiently polymerized and/or cross-linked that the generated gases cause the matrix to expand, each of the remaining valences being satisfied by an organic radical; provided that any carbon atom that is directly linked to an azo nitrogen, except that of a carbonyl group, has at least two of its remaining three valences satisfied by a carbon to carbon bond or a carbon to hydrogen bond. Preferably, the mixture contains at least two such azo compounds having appreciably different sensitivity to decomposition by acid. The process is especially useful in making foamed flotation structures (e.g. boat hulls).
 1978-07-18 
Get PDF - 9pp US4075076  Water treatment apparatus
In a process for purifying an aqueous liquid by flotation of suspended solids with gas bubbles produced by electrolysis between at least one pair of electrodes, at least one of said electrodes, preferably in the form of an endless belt or band, is transported in or through said liquid while said electrolysis and flotation are taking place. Bridging and fouling of the electrodes are thereby minimised.
 1978-02-21 
Get PDF - 6pp US4066540  Apparatus and method for continuous froth flotation
An apparatus for continuous froth flotation is disclosed which comprises a vertically elongate column having disposed therein a froth separator, a raw water inlet pipe, a treated water discharge pipe and a gas dispersing unit, and stepped shelves disposed inside said column and adapted to provide thorough contact between the bubbles and the water subjected to treatment.
 1978-01-03 
Get PDF - 14pp US4036942  Process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans from liquid and gaseous streams
A process is provided for removing hydrogen sulfide and alkyl mercaptans from fluid streams by reaction with oxygen in the presence of a metal amino acid chelate in aqueous solution containing an amine, converting hydrogen sulfide to sulfur and alkyl mercaptans to dialkyl disulfides, and separating these from the aqueous metal chelate solution.A process is also provided for removing hydrogen sulfide and alkyl mercaptans from fluid streams in which the gaseous or liquid stream is dispersed in aqueous metal chelate solution in a fine dispersion short of foam formation and passed through a reaction zone at a high flow velocity, where hydrogen sulfide is catalytically oxidized to sulfur, and alkyl mercaptans to dialkyl disulfides, and then into a relatively wide quiescent zone where the dispersion breaks, the gases are separated, and the metal chelate solution recovered.
 1977-07-19 
Get PDF - 5pp US3989608  Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit
This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient.In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.
 1976-11-02 
Get PDF - 4pp US3975269  Purification of industrial waste waters by flotation
A method of purifying industrial waste water wherein microbubbles consisting primarily of oxygen, hydrogen, or air having certain micron sizes and of sufficient number and volume wherein formed particles with or without the use of a coagulant in the water are attracted to said bubbles by difference in electrostatic charge to form embryo flocs is disclosed. The addition of a polyelectrolyte is then made wherein a full floc is formed which includes the microbubbles. This light floc is promptly surfaced by the buoyance factor provided by the microbubbles. The process is suitable for all types of industrial waste water.
 1976-08-17 
Get PDF - 10pp US3944653  Process for preparing high purity antimony trichloride and antimony oxide from stibnite ores
Antimony sulfide contained in an antimony sulfide bearing ore, such as stibnite, is converted to high purity antimony trichloride by reacting the antimony sulfide bearing ore with a source of chlorine to form high purity antimony trichloride and sulfur or hydrogen sulfide as separable by-products. The high purity antimony trichloride may be hydrolyzed to form high purity antimony oxide.
 1976-03-16 
Get PDF - 3pp US3933633  Method for separating vinyl chloride
A method for separating vinyl chloride from a mixture of vinyl chloride with other non-plastic substances such as sand and soil, metals, glass or rubbers which comprises introducing gas bubbles into a dispersion of the vinyl chloride mixture in an aqueous liquid medium such as water or salt water and containing a flotation agent such as pine oil thereby to float the vinyl chloride and collect it.
 1976-01-20 
Get PDF - 4pp US3925203  System for introducing flocculating ions and air into waste water treatment systems
The recovery of suspended solids from different types of waste water is improved by locating an annular electrode assembly external to tank-like flotation cell used for effecting such solids removal. Air is introduced into water circulated from a cell-containing liquid being treated and is pumped under high pressure into a housing for the electrode. The water is retained in the housing for a time sufficient to permit the air to dissolve in the water and for flocculating ions to be added to the system as a result of electrolytic erosion of the electrode metal. The mixture of well-mixed waste water, dissolved air and metal flocculating ions are discharged through an expansion valve into a flocculating tank or cell containing the liquid. The air then comes out of solution in the form of minute bubbles and combines with the flocculating ions to carry suspended particles of solids to the surface. The floc thus produced is then skimmed or otherwise removed from the tank surface and transported to a disposal site.
 1975-12-09 
Get PDF - 13pp US3904521  Method and apparatus for purification
A method and apparatus are provided for purifying flowing water containing waste utilizing ozone wherein the water is propelled into an ozone containing atmosphere in the form of droplets and to provide a film of the water on the walls of the treatment chamber; efficient contact between ozone and waste is obtained in a short period; the water may additionally be treated to remove suspended particles by flotation of the particles with hydrogen bubbles formed by electrolysis and removal of the floating sludge.
 1975-09-09 
Get PDF - 7pp US3870635  Apparatus for clarifying an influent water
Apparatus for clarifying an influent water (such as sewage and other solid/liquid slurries), by gas stimulated flotation of solid material, wherein the influent water is generally upwardly supplied into a generally vertically elongated clarifying chamber at a location substantially spaced above the lower end thereof, and gaseous bubbles intermixed with carrier liquid are discharged to the clarifying chamber at a second location substantially spaced below said supply of the influent water thereto, the gaseous bubbles being produced immediately adjacent to their said discharge and the discharged gaseous bubbles being permitted to readily rise in the chamber in cloud form to cause upward movement of solid material in the influent water while liquid flows downwardly through the chamber.
 1975-03-11 
Get PDF - 10pp US3787316  FOAM FLOTATION CONCENTRATION OF SEWAGE
A suspension of activated sludge from a secondary settling tank is concentrated by a bubble flotation process. Air is forced through a mixture of water and a surfactant in a shear type foamer at low pressure to produce a stable foam of small air bubbles in water. The foam is pumped into the suspension entering the concentrator and the bubbles attach to the solids in the suspension. The mixture of foam and suspension is released within a baffle in the concentrator tank, causing the surfactant shielded air bubbles to lift the solids to which they have become attached and form a blanket of concentrated sludge. A rotating skimmer head removes an upper layer of the sludge blanket whereas the clarified effluent flows under the baffle and out over an annular weir for discharge. The concentrated sludge removed from the concentrator is introduced into an anaerobic digester, along with primary sludge from the primary settling tank of the system. One overall effect is to reduce the size required for the digester.
 1974-01-22 
Get PDF - 4pp US3785490  WATER PURIFICATION APPARATUS
In a froth flotation type of water purification system, a pump is used to deliver influent from a storage reservoir into a froth flotation tank. The pump is subject to intermittent air-binding thereby introducing air into the influent prior to its delivery to the froth flotation tank. The intermittent air-binding of the pump provides for thorough mixing of fine air bubbles with the influent thereby forming an effective froth for removal of suspended solids from the influent.
 1974-01-15 
Get PDF - 6pp US3749243  WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM
Effluent is selectively received within a plurality of clarifiers, each of which incorporates upper and lower surface skimming and sludge removal rake apparatus. A sludge reservoir receives the raked solids for selective removal with the waste water moving from the clarifiers into an aeration chamber where it is subjected to an aeration procedure prior to discharge to a sewer line, stream or pond. The effluent, prior to introduction into the clarifiers, is injected with chemicals to expedite the removal of the solids and air to form particle attaching bubbles for a flotation thereof to the upper skimming area.
 1973-07-31 
Get PDF - 5pp US3722035  METHOD FOR REMOVING MEAT FROM THE SHELLS OF BIVALE MOLLUSKS
Bivalve mollusks, such as clams, are, with with meat intact, heated sufficiently to obtain the partial opening of the shells and the withdrawal of at least one end of the adductor muscle from the shell; and while the bivalve mollusk is in this condition it is permitted to fall downwardly into and through a body of water which is devoid of a quantity of salt which would have any deleterious effect upon the meat of the bivalve, or which would make the expended water objectionable for municipal sewage operations; then there is introduced into the lower portion of the body of water compressed air of sufficient magnitude and so located as to provide upwardly rising air bubbles which are capable of assisting in the separation of the meat from the shell and the flotation of the meat upwardly into the upper portion of the body of water while permitting the empty shells to continue to fall downwardly therein; the separated meats are removed from the upper portion of the body of water; and the empty shells are independently removed from the lower portion thereof.
 1973-03-27 
Get PDF - 5pp US3669883  FOAM FLOTATION SEPARATION SYSTEM PARTICULARLY SUITABLE FOR SEPARATING DISSOLVED PROTEIN COMPOUNDS AND TOXIC METALLIC IONS FROM AQUARIUM WATER
Foam flotation separation of dispersoids such as colloids and high molecular weight compounds in dispersions is carried out by drawing the dispersion into a pump which then passes it, as motive fluid, through a venturi to draw in air and effect an air emulsion-type mixture. Thereafter, the mixture passes into a separation column wherein the very small air bubbles in the emulsion are allowed to pass out of the liquid. During the passage through the liquid, dispersoid molecules are adsorbed, in the prior art manner, by the small bubbles, which results in the formation of a dispersoid-containing foam that is removed from the top of the separation column. A substantially dispersoid-free liquid is withdrawn from the lower section of the column. Particularly, the level of toxic compounds in aquarium water is effectively controlled by removing dissolved proteinaceous compounds from the water in this manner.
 1972-06-13 
Buy PDF US3642617  FOAM FLOTATION CONCENTRATOR
A suspension of activated sludge from a secondary settling tank is concentrated by a bubble flotation process. Air is forced through a mixture of water and a surfactant in a shear-type foamer at low pressure to produce a stable foam of small air bubbles in water. The foam is pumped into the suspension entering the concentrator and the bubbles attach to the solids in the suspension. The mixture of foam and suspension is released within a baffle in the concentrator tank, causing the surfactant shielded air bubbles to lift the solids to which they have become attached and form a blanket of concentrated sludge. A rotating skimmer head removes an upper layer of the sludge blanket whereas the clarified effluent flows under the baffle and out over an annular weir for discharge. The concentrated sludge removed from the concentrator is introduced into an anaerobic digester, along with primary sludge from the primary settling tank of the system. One overall effect is to reduce the size required for the digester.
 1972-02-15 
Get PDF - 5pp US3622508  SLUDGE DISPOSAL
Sewage is subjected in sequence to primary and secondary treatment to derive separately therefrom a primary sludge formed of heavier solids and a secondary sludge formed of relatively lighter solids. The primary sludge is concentrated by filtering to form a comparatively dry filter cake, and the secondary sludge is delivered into a flotation tank, together with a pressurized solution of air and water, so that air bubbles released incident to the reduction of pressure attach to the agglomerated sludge particles and float them to the surface of the body of liquid within the tank. The floating blanket of sludge is removed from the tank and blended with the filter cake to form a substantially homogeneous liquid slurry which is then spray-dried and incinerated.
 1971-11-23 
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